National Disability Strategy and related publications
We have done this to highlight that when an electric car is charged with carbon intensive electricity, it does not perform well, from a greenhouse perspective. Find out about our five minute actions which make a real difference. Ireland’s first National Mitigation Plan was published by the Department of the Environment, Climate and Climate Action in 2017 represents an initial step to set us on a pathway to achieve the level of decarbonisation required and initiated the process of developing medium to long term mitigation choices for the next and future decades. For instance, electric buses are gaining ground in China and Chile. Chapter 3 presents a brief analysis of the results of the questionnaire circulated to UNECE member countries and international organizations in 2012. The vast majority of people living in developing countries rely on walking and cycling to meet their daily mobility needs. Moreover, ASEAN cities are now wrestling with the negative impacts of their heavy volumes of traffic. With international trade expected to increase in the coming years, emissions from ships and boats may increase by as much as 250% by 2050. Currently, transport accounts for 28% of total Scottish emissions. In 2018, there were 281. In doing this it brings within a single set of covers a wealth of information, systematically presented, and, importantly, written in a way that can be followed by a non specialist. 24 September 2019 Letter. March 26, 2021 This pre recorded webinar explores the logistics of TCI P, including a proposed approach to allowance auctions, market stability mechanisms, and how fuel system participants would meet compliance requirements. To subscribe https://transportandclimate.com/ to the IUSS Alert, follow this link. The infographic below illustrates the stark contrast between dirty and clean transport modes and the space each mode consumes. Share this on Twitter. EPA to set emission standards for greenhouse gases and black carbon emissions, and will be pushing the next EPA to set emissions standards for trains to ensure a transition to 100% clean, renewably electric power by no later than 2030. Campaign for Better Transport Charitable Trust is a charity 1101929 and a company limited by guarantee 4943428. For more information, check out our report Waiting for the Green Light: Transport Solutions to Climate Change. Other issues such as infrastructure, legislation and public leadership were also part of the work programme. Hu, 2020: Climate impacts of a weakened Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation in a warming climate. In California transportation is the leading source of greenhouse gas pollution, accounting for about 40% of the state’s emissions.
How are countries already addressing them, and where are the further opportunities for decarbonization. Freight transport consumes around 40 percent of the energy used in transportation sector. But cars and trucks are commercially available today that meet and exceed this standard, including a wide variety zero emission vehicles, and technology for these vehicles is rapidly advancing while costs are declining. In 2017, the transportation sector accounted for 29% of the nation’s total emissions of 6. The EU supports global action to tackle these emissions and. If your community doesn’t have enough public transportation options, ask for more. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21:178–185. 29 agreed to organize a substantive round table on this subject, back to back with one of the forthcoming sessions of the World Forum. I had the privilege of being the convenor of the international expert team that drafted it. Watch webinar recording. Energy use in the transport sector will likely continue to increase in both developed and developing countries. The tool will be structured to easily permit an enlargement to other greenhouse gases GHG, gaseous pollutants or other transport modes, subject to further funding. Following more than a decade of petitions and successful litigation by the Center and allies over the EPA’s failure address the effects of aircraft pollution under the Clean Air Act, in 2016 the EPA made a formal finding that greenhouse gas pollution from aircraft endangers human health and welfare. Puede consultar un listado de empresas del Grupo en.
National Disability Strategy and related publications
The main exception is railways; powered by a significant share of electricity, rail emissions have actually declined. I had the privilege of being the convenor of the international expert team that drafted it. We consulted on Low Carbon Vehicles LCVs and have already made investment. The Department of Transport, in conjunction with Transport Infrastructure Ireland TII, administers the Low Emissions Vehicle Toll Incentive LEVTI Scheme for EV drivers. Andreas Schåfer and his colleagues provide a clear and concise overview of the role that transportation plays in creating some of the global environmental challenges confronting us and look at the sort of technology that can help us circumvent the dangers of global climatic change. Emissions of all other greenhouse gases must reach net zero by 2050. However, the production of biofuels often leads to negative outcomes such as monocultures, increased use of pesticides and illegal deforestation, which in turn negatively affect many poor and indigenous people, who depend heavily on their natural environment. We publish our strategy as part of the Scotland wide emissions reduction plan, The Climate Change Plan. “Jenny Agutter, our Patron. However, this sector remains one of the biggest environmental challenges that we are facing. The Scheme is used globally by bond issuers, governments, investors and the financial markets to prioritise investments which genuinely contribute to addressing climate change. Transport remains a key obstacle to achieving the EU’s climate targets, as shown in our recent analysis. The European Union EU is the world’s third largest emitter of greenhouse gases and has a crucial part to play in achieving the 1. Globally, airlines carried 4. The Transportation and Climate Initiative TCI is a regional collaboration of 13 Northeast and Mid Atlantic jurisdictions that seeks to develop the clean energy economy, improve transportation, and reduce carbon emissions in the transportation sector.
Our major infrastructure projects will also use our CMS for monitoring carbon emissions. Director, Aerospace Policy and Management Center, School of Public Policy, George Mason University. To better understand those questions, we used Climate Watch to take a closer look at the data. Principles for Network Related Publications Schools. Transportation sector and account for approximately 9 percent of U. Updates reflect the evolution of disclosure practices, approaches, and user needs. Acta Agriculturæ Scandinavica Section B, Soil and Plant Science. Transport for Sustainable Development in the ECE region. March 26, 2021 This pre recorded webinar explores the logistics of TCI P, including a proposed approach to allowance auctions, market stability mechanisms, and how fuel system participants would meet compliance requirements. The Australian Government has set the target of reducing emissions by 26 – 28% below 2005 levels by 2030. The Climate Change Risk Assessment for Scotland states that can expect to get warmer, wetter winters and hotter, drier summers. Share of passenger transport activity passenger kilometres by mode,2015 and 2017. Download webinar presentation. Adding in our mitigation scenario emissions projections from other transport subsectors, we estimate cumulative 2021–2050 emissions from all EU transport would consume 6. Guidance and standards will play an important role in this respect.
European Commission website
The measure aims to encourage citizens to stop using their own private vehicles as their choice of transport and to instead opt for more sustainable mobility. They’re also expected to grow at a faster rate than that from any other sector, posing a major challenge to efforts to reduce emissions in line with the Paris Agreement and other global goals. ICPSR is part of the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan. Download webinar presentation. Get the latest on our work for biodiversity and learn how to help in our free weekly e newsletter. Third international handbook of mathematics education pp. How can we collectively reconcile a need to reduce carbon pollution with peoples’ widespread fondness for driving, often with just a driver, no passengers, even in congested urban areas. Feasibility Study on Network Related Publications will normally include. It is important to note that individual organisations infrastructure owners and operators can produce their own specifications for climate resilience and need not wait for formal ‘CEN’ or ‘ISO’ standards, although ISO 14090 will provide a useful framework for adaptation. With the global shift towards a low carbon, circular economy already underway, the Commission’s low emission mobility strategy, adopted in July 2016, aims to ensure Europe stays competitive and able to respond to the increasing mobility needs of people and goods. Workshops in a Box is a set of five presentations for use in introductory workshops on the TCFD recommendations to help support adoption and implementation. Transportation sector and account for approximately 9 percent of U. This 2020 guidance is intended to assist non financial companies interested in using climate related scenarios as part of their efforts to implement the Task Force’s recommendations. Electrification is an important part of the solution to the challenge of growing transportation sector emissions because it eliminates tailpipe emissions and harnesses the potential to decarbonize the power grid. 9 billion metric tons for the year – just under the 2012 peak. Edited by Bray F, Colombet M, Mery L, Piñeros M, Znaor A, Zanetti R, Ferlay J. For local guidance on bicycle and pedestrian trails check out Trail Link, a non profit dedicated to creating a healthier environment and developing trails across the U. Promoting sustainable low emissions transport. These measures were expanded upon in Climate Action Plan, which commits to achieving a net zero carbon energy systems objective for Irish society and in the process, create a resilient, vibrant and sustainable country. Even when charged with relatively dirty electricity, it’s still 40 times less polluting than a typical petrol car.
Low emission vehicle work underway
Fossil fueled transportation emissions also create smog, soot and other harmful air pollution. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B. 4 MtCO2e in 2014 73% of total transport emissions. In response to the challenges of climate change, achieving a cost effective way of reducing emissions is the key priority. In fact, Australian cars emit roughly the same per year as Queensland’s entire coal and gas fired electricity supply. Web design for nonprofit organisations byFat Beehive. 7 million by 2022, according to Statista, a provider of market and consumer data. The seminar also helped to identify what barriers might exist to achieve these goals, and what opportunities the transport sector could pursue. ICPSR is part of the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan. We have done this to highlight that when an electric car is charged with carbon intensive electricity, it does not perform well, from a greenhouse perspective. Chapter 1 provides a short review of the scientific background of climate change and its effects on both a global scale and in the ECE region. The joint United Nations Economic Commission for Europe – United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Workshop on “Climate Change Impacts on International Transport Networks” held in September 2010 raised awareness about the important challenges that climate change impacts and adaptation requirements present for international transport networks. Road transport both passenger and freight contributed nearly three quarters 74% of transport greenhouse gas emissions that year, while rail represented only 5%. Ireland’s first National Mitigation Plan was published by the Department of the Environment, Climate and Climate Action in 2017 represents an initial step to set us on a pathway to achieve the level of decarbonisation required and initiated the process of developing medium to long term mitigation choices for the next and future decades. 5°C – above pre industrial levels. Third international handbook of mathematics education pp. A network of over 700 publicly accessible charge points is already available, including roughly 100 fast chargers, which are mainly found on national routes. If you click on any of these links you will leave the GIZ website. Read both of the reports below. The 5th Transport and Climate Change Week offered a broad programme – globally and regionally. Find out about our five minute actions which make a real difference. This last target is the one that applies to transport. Promoting sustainable low emissions transport. Consumer behaviour after information campaigns in order to receive feedback on the impact of their different policy scenarios on the economy. Energy Information Administration. “Jenny Agutter, our Patron.
The scrubbers reduce sulphur dioxide emissions by more than 90 percent and ensure an annual sulphur dioxide emission reduction of more than 500 tonnes per ship. Title: Advancing climate strategies in rapidly motorising countriesCommissioned by: German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety BMUCountry: Viet Nam, Kenya, MoroccoLead executing agency: Ministry of Transport Viet Nam, Ministry of Transport, Infrastructure, Housing and Urban Development Kenya, Ministry of Equipment, Transport, Logistics and Water MoroccoOverall term: 2016 to 2023. It is intended to help bridge the difference in purchase price between conventional heavy duty vehicles HDVs, and those powered by alternatively fuelled power trains that offer environmental benefits over standard diesel vehicle technologies. For packing tips check out the American Society of Travel Agents. Women are responsible for almost all domestic travel, which is by far the most energy and time consuming category in rural areas. Aviation emissions stood at 1. Transport is the primary contributor of greenhouse gas emissions in the UK. Mechanisms for Achieving Sustainable Travel. Current Events in the Bib. The membership fee covers gas, maintenance and insurance. In fact, on international scorecards, Australia lags behind Russia, Mexico and Indonesia on transport energy efficiency. In doing this it brings within a single set of covers a wealth of information, systematically presented, and, importantly, written in a way that can be followed by a non specialist. In the summer, a new International Standard, ISO 14090 ‘Adaptation to climate change Principles, requirements and guidelines’ is to be published.
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Sport vehicles, pickup trucks and minivans contribute half of the carbon dioxide emissions from the U. We’re pushing California and the federal EPA to expand renewable electric infrastructure and establish increasingly stringent emissions standards in cars, pickups, buses and trucks, which would prohibit the sale of any new fossil fuel cars no later than 2030. Nevertheless the Trump administration finalized a rule to revoke California’s ability to set its own stringent greenhouse gas emissions standards along with the ability of other states to follow California’s lead, and proposes to roll back the existing, already insufficient standards adopted by the previous administration. 187 countries have ratified the Paris Agreement, committing themselves to combating climate change. EU Transparency Register number 58744833263 19. RELATED CAMPAIGNS • Airplane Emissions • Climate Law Institute • Fuel Economy Standards • Off road Vehicles • Ship Emissions • Solutions: Political and Personal. Our nation needs to shift away from fossil fuel powered vehicle dependence and toward zero emissions in all transport sectors. The main objective of the project is to enhance international cooperation and planning towards sustainable transport policies through the development and use of a standard monitoring and assessment tool for CO2 emissions in inland transport including a transport policy converter. Ships, besides releasing almost 3% of the world’s CO2, are a main source of nitrous oxide and black carbon soot. “We are a small charity making a big difference but we rely on your donations to continue our work. The scenario analysis guidance provides practical, process oriented ways for companies to use climate related scenario analysis and ideas for disclosing the resilience of their strategies to different climate related scenarios. Greenhouse gas emissions from transport by mode in 2014 Share of transport energy demand by mode in 2014 %. For information on the ERP and what it means for the public as well as the sector, can be found in these factsheets below in related documents and publications. Transport accounted for 14% of total global greenhouse gas emissions in 2018.
In February 2009, the Inland Transport Committee ITC endorsed the activities of WP. Additionally, increasing demand for biofuels provides opportunities for their production in Ireland. Box 300, N – 2803 Gjøvik, NorwayPhone: + 47 611 87 400E mail: site. Burning one gallon of gasoline creates about 20 pounds of CO2—which means the average vehicle creates roughly 6 to 9 tons of CO2 each year. In California transportation is the leading source of greenhouse gas pollution, accounting for about 40% of the state’s emissions. 7% in 2000 to 1% in 2015. Download webinar presentation. COVID 19 impacts on CO2 emissions from land transport and domestic aviation. Download webinar presentation. Andreas Schåfer and his colleagues provide a clear and concise overview of the role that transportation plays in creating some of the global environmental challenges confronting us and look at the sort of technology that can help us circumvent the dangers of global climatic change. Since its release, the report has been used for outreach and trainings on transport and climate change in various parts of the world. Consumer behaviour after information campaigns in order to receive feedback on the impact of their different policy scenarios on the economy. Halbritter, Brian Maitner and Miska Luoto 2021. Feasibility Study on Network Related Publications will normally include. In January 2015 EERA Council decided to review and develop its publication policy. The Government will publicly consult on the draft Emissions Reduction Plan shortly, which will include transport content that has taken account this feedback. A discussion of the opportunities and challenges involved mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from passenger travel. There are a number of ways to charge an electric vehicle EV, and while the experience can be similar to refuelling a diesel or petrol car, there are fundamental differences as well as much more flexibility and independence for the consumer when it comes to an EV. Full public consultation on initiatives to reduce transport emissions will follow in the 2nd half of 2021. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 11:22–37. Average fuel savings of 7% can be expected for cars and 10% for HGV scheme. LARA is dedicated to bridging the gap between civilian and military employment and helping veterans gain and retain employment. Recent studies estimate outdoor air pollution causes more than 3. Government policy will seek to maintain this high level of home charging. Between 2010 and 2019, annual growth in gross domestic product GDP averaged 2. We will gather data from across the operational, construction and maintenance activities of Transport Scotland. The ship will travel into and out of the fjord at Sandefjord on battery power.
By midcentury, greenhouse gas emissions from transport will need to be at least 60% lower than in1990 and be firmly on the path towards zero. Fostering collaboration with partners and driving innovation in the transportation sector is key to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, ensuring cleaner air and water for future generations. Ships, besides releasing almost 3% of the world’s CO2, are a main source of nitrous oxide and black carbon soot. The objective that all growth in transport demand in cities should be met by public transport, cycling and walking, and that there should be zero growth in car traffic volumes, leads to new demands on the knowledge and practice of planners and other professionals. The EU is taking action to reduce aviation emissions in Europe and. Transportation sector greenhouse gas emissions 1990 2017. 3 and 20; ECE/TRANS/WP. The Scottish Government is committed to providing a world class transport system which provides the people of Scotland with efficient travel and which allows the country and its economy to thrive. The 2019 status report describes progress on climate related disclosure and TCFD implementation efforts, insights, and challenges. One operator had a fleet where 75% of HGV drivers were receiving training, while another was working in partnership with vehicle manufacturers to further improve efficiencies. International shipping is a large and growing source of greenhouse gas emissions. Climate change, knows no borders, is the greatest long term threat of our time. Initiator EERA Network endorsed by the Link ConvenorDiversity All applications should normally demonstrate how at least three European countries participate. In a further step, the above mentioned assessment tool for inland transport CO2 emissions will be complemented with a catalogue of recommendations on a number of possible measures on how users can reduce their CO2 emissions within road, rail and inland waterways transport. Sustained and unprecedented action will be required to arrest and then reverse this trend. Climate Processes and Climate Sensitivity, Geophys. No están previstas otras cesiones de datos, salvo obligación legal. We may publish a summary of submissions. More goods than ever before are being transported on trucks as freight activity has continued to grow, surpassing 120 trillion tonne kilometres in 2017. Teachers’ mathematical discussions of the body mass index formula. Lewis Fulton, Co Director of the NextSTEPS Program, University of California’s Davis Institute of Transportation Studies, Davis CA. In 2018, there were 281. Sales of new vehicles dropped 14. This report is also available in the following languages:Simplified Chinese, Traditional Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Spanish and Portuguese. Despite the rise of electric car manufacturers, new public transit projects in cities across the nation, more fuel efficient aircraft engines, and other innovations in mobility, it’s clear that economics is the main driver of carbon emissions from transportation. Color Line has been a partner of Bellona for many years.
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We simply cannot allow another generation to pass before we take the most polluting vehicles off the road. The Ministry received a total of 767 submissions on Hīkina te Kohupara. 1 mpg despite representing just 1% of new vehicle production in United States. The EU is taking action to reduce aviation emissions in Europe and. We recently completed a project for the City of Melbourne to provide an improved understanding of current trends in transport emissions. Together, we generate powerful demand signals for market acceleration, and push for ambitious policy leadership at all government levels. Update your browser to view this website correctly. Growth in transport emissions by region and in international aviation and shipping, 2000 2019. But cars and trucks are commercially available today that meet and exceed this standard, including a wide variety zero emission vehicles, and technology for these vehicles is rapidly advancing while costs are declining. Getting there requires a comprehensive suite of improvements, addressing clean fuels, vehicle efficiency, how we build cities, and how we move people and goods. EPA to set greenhouse gas limits for ships, and we’re urging the administration under the next EPA to move forward with setting standards. Available from: edition. For instance, the following aspects of transport may have particular gender dimensions: women’s transportation of heavy loads over long distances; inadequate road safety for pedestrians; contamination through air pollution; sexual violence against women in transport systems and remote areas; and speeding in cars. Strategic reallocation of road spaceCurrent road space allocation in the City of Melbourne is a legacy of car orientated planning which emerged from the post war boom. Transport is one of 5 sectors the first emissions reduction plan focuses on. 5°C states that, from the start of 2018, only 420 Gt CO2e –580 Gt CO2e can still be emitted for a 50%–67% chance of limiting warming to 1. March 26, 2021 This pre recorded webinar explores the logistics of TCI P, including a proposed approach to allowance auctions, market stability mechanisms, and how fuel system participants would meet compliance requirements. Nordic research in mathematics education. In this report, we focus on initiating action. 21, 2020, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and the District of Columbia became the first TCI jurisdictions to launch the groundbreaking Transportation and Climate Initiative Program TCI P to cut transportation pollution and invest in communities. More than twice the estimated transport in the wider Pacific at the same latitude. Halbritter AH, De Boeck HJ, Eycott AE, Reinsch S, Robinson DE, Vicca S, Berauer B, Christiansen CT, Estiarte M, Grünzweig JM, Gya R, Hansen K, Jentsch A, Lee H, Linder S, Marshall J, Peñuelas J, Schmidt IK, Stuart‐Haëntjens E, Wilfahrt P, The ClimMani working group, and Vandvik V. “Defining the limits of homology modelling in information driven protein docking”Proteins: Struc. These emissions are forecast to increase under the existing policy context. In December 2016, DECC and the Department of Transport, with the support of the Department of the Taoiseach, established a Low Emissions Vehicles Taskforce to consider the range of measures and options available to government for the purpose of accelerating the deployment of low carbon vehicles in the transport sector.
It will be useful for others also with an interest stakeholders like the finance sector. 39, L18608, L052952. Green Freight Project. Acta Agriculturæ Scandinavica Section B, Soil and Plant Science. Enquist, Vigdis Vandvik, Aud H. Energy Information Administration. For EVs to make large scale decreases in emissions, it is of critical importance that they be charged from renewable energy. Zero Emission HGV Infrastructure Requirements Ricardo Energy and Environment. Formats: Buy Book, Web Access.
This year we will gather, exchange and cooperate in a virtual conference room. Letter: International aviation and shipping and net zero. With the support of the Department of Transport, dedicated charging infrastructure is currently being developed across the country. Countries should specify transport sector targets and plans addressing those opportunities, not only in their NDCs but also in their Long Term Strategies. Halbritter, Brian Maitner and Miska Luoto 2021. Transportation consumes two thirds of the world’s petroleum and has become the largest contributor to global environmental change. Phase 1 of the bus trials commenced in December 2018 and the different technologies tested included. 5% in Annex I countries and 14. Transport accounts for 26% of global CO2 emissions and is one of the few industrial sectors where emissions are still growing. In the first phase from 2016 to 2019, a number of quantifiable successes were achieved in the partner countries. Reference Supplement to the Manual for Relating Examinations to the CEFR, Sauli Takala et al, 2009. Contact: Nyshie Perkinson. International aviation and maritime are major sources of emissions. The Center for Biological Diversity is a 501c3 registered charitable organization. The joint United Nations Economic Commission for Europe – United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Workshop on “Climate Change Impacts on International Transport Networks” held in September 2010 raised awareness about the important challenges that climate change impacts and adaptation requirements present for international transport networks. The American Metrological Society published a series of short papers, jointly edited with the Met Office, which explored how six extreme events in 2011 could be explained from the perspective of climate change. © European Educational Research Association Research for the benefit of education and society. We are working to ensure that the future of aviation is equitable, decarbonized and not reliant on false solutions to the climate problem. The Government has committed to a target of net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050, but concern is already growing that transport’s slow progress will stop us from meeting this target. Share of transport emissions by region and in international aviation and shipping, 2010 2019. The original JACS paper, together with an introduction to the study of biomolecular complexes and an application to the UbcH5 CNOT4 complex can be found online in Cyril Dominguez’s Ph. In California transportation is the leading source of greenhouse gas pollution, accounting for about 40% of the state’s emissions. 3 and 20; ECE/TRANS/WP. The infographic below illustrates the stark contrast between dirty and clean transport modes and the space each mode consumes.
In 2016, the transport sector surpassed the electric power industry as the single greatest U. Te Manatū Waka will work together with transport agencies, local government, iwi/Māori and communities across Aotearoa to achieve this. Initiator EERA Network endorsed by the Link ConvenorDiversity All applications should normally demonstrate how at least three European countries participate. With the global shift towards a low carbon, circular economy already underway, the Commission’s low emission mobility strategy, adopted in July 2016, aims to ensure Europe stays competitive and able to respond to the increasing mobility needs of people and goods. Car use, road freight and aviation are the principal contributors to greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector and this review focuses on approaches to reduce emissions from these three problem areas. The Center for Biological Diversity is a 501c3 registered charitable organization. Firstly, intersections have a disproportionate number of crashes, and in the City of Melbourne, many of these crashes involve pedestrians and cyclists City of Melbourne, 2014a; VicRoads, 2017. It sets a baseline that helps to capture the progress of transport in regard to climate action. Screen papers by browsing community reviews summarized in the Evaluation column and in the Title dropdown. How your flight emits as much CO2 as many people do in a year, The Guardian, July 19, 2019. In this report, we focus on ideas and actions for local government to start taking now as they formulate their path to a zero carbon world. The Electric Vehicle Home Charger Grant was introduced in early 2018 to help homeowners install an electric vehicle charge point on their property. Edited by Bray F, Colombet M, Mery L, Piñeros M, Znaor A, Zanetti R, Ferlay J. Car use, road freight and aviation are the principal contributors to greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector and this review focuses on approaches to reduce emissions from these three problem areas. It offers policy makers and practitioners a compilation of 180 policy examples from over 70 countries. Globally, the picture is similar, and in its most recent report on climate change, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in 2014 offered a stark forecast: By 2050, global emissions of greenhouse gases from transportation could grow to about 12 billion tons of CO2e annually – unless there are aggressive and sustained changes in how humans get around.